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Protection From Corona Virus

Precautionary measures from corona virus

Now Corona virus-19 reached to more than 200 countries of the world. This pandemic virus infected more than 2 million people worldwide and near 1.6 Lakh people died. As it is a new kind of virus, it took time to know how it spreads, symptom, how to prevent spreading in the community, etc. However, based on WHO guidelines, research, and preventive measures taken by other countries following physical measures are discussed for protection from corona virus-19.

Physical distancing:

Physical distancing

Maintain a physical distance with other at least 2 meters. During sneezing, dry cough, exhale and conversation, virus spreads around the person with minor droplet comes out from the person’s mouth and nose. Research shows that this droplet may travel near 1 meter around the person. So maintain a distance of 2 meters to be at safer side.

Stay at home unless or until it is necessary to go to outside:

Almost all the country where covid-19 identified, was locked down the area to stop spreading the corona virus in community. So, self isolation is extremely necessary. Earlier it was advice that be at safe distance from the ill person. But as a lot of person who are recently infected does not look like infected and there are some asymptomatic carrier of the virus is available around us. Hence obeying locked down criteria holistically shall be maintained.

Washing hand or using hand sanitizer

As corona virus spread through hands, hands shall be washed frequently by soap. If you are going to outside, then do not touch your mouth, nose, eye without washing your hand. Where ever soap is not possible, use Hand sanitizer. But there is a risk associated with both soap and sanitizer. Residue shall not be entered in our body. So, wash your with clean water thoroughly. For hand sanitizer, chemical used in the sanitizer shall be effective for killing microbes and equally the chemical shall not harm our skin. So, after a lot of study, I have selected following two for your use.

Wear Mask

Now wearing mask is mandatory in a lot of states. Here mainly two types of mask can be wore. One is N-95 mask and another 3 ply surgical mask. Wearing mask will help us to prevent spreading of the virus. N-95 means filtering efficiency of the mask is 95% and it is recommended by WHO. 3 ply surgical mask also found to be effective. Make sure that one single mask shall not be used for many times. Mask shall not be source of contamination. So, proper practice shall be followed for wearing mask. Following video link for your reference:

For purchasing a quality mask following link can be considered:

Wear Gloves

Wearing gloves in public place may reduce the chances of infection. So, link of cost effective gloves is given below for your consideration:

Hope this article will help us to get right product to be safe from microbes like corona virus. Link of the above is given after a lot of research and study on the personnel protective equipment. Both cost and quality of the product have been considered. So, immediately order the protective gear and start using. These products comes under essential products hence home delivery of the products are available. Use these product when appropriate and be safe from the microbes.

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Precautionary measures from corona virus

What is corona virus

Corona viruses are a group of related viruses that causes diseases in mammals and birds. The viruses cause respiratory track infection that can be like mild cold or lethal like SERS, MERS, and COVID-19. Name of the virus responsible for the current pandemic is SARS-CoV-2 and name of the disease caused by the virus is COVID-19.

Top 20 precautionary measures from corona virus:

  1. While talking to anyone always maintain social distance of 3 meters. We are not habituated with the practices so this is tough to put it in to practices. So, initially we have to start it sincerely then slowly practice will be built.
  2. Frequent hand washing with liquid soap solution. If hand washing facility is not available sanitize your hand. Daily sanitize your home, daily accessible area, furniture, floor, doors window, bathroom, water tabs, etc. At entry keep one bucket with disinfectant solution. While anyone coming back home from outside leave their cloths in to the bucket, get fresh from bath room, then only should enter in to the living area.
  3. Wash milk bags the moment you take it & wash your hands while you are at it.
  4. Consider cancelling newspapers.
  5. Keep a separate tray for couriers. Courier person can place the envelope/package in the tray and courier may be left untouched for at least 24 hrs.
  6. Instruct maids not to touch main door. On entering the home, she must immediately wash hands thoroughly, before touching other things. After that, wipe the calling – bell switch with cleaning fluid.
  7. Avoid getting Swiggy, Zomato, Amazon, Flipkart or any online consignment as far as possible.
  8. Wash all fruits & vegetables once we bring them home.
  9. Remote, keyboards, phones are the most highly contaminated elements in our house. Clean them at least once a day using cleaning fluid.
  10. Wash hands frequently when in house or in office. Once every hour at least.
  11. Avoid public transport as far as possible. Even Ola Uber may be used when unavoidable.
  12. Avoid Gyms, Swimming Pool and other exercise areas, where surface contacts are inevitable.
  13. Cancel tuition, dance/music classes or any such places which is away from home and have gathering.
  14. When you return home from office, shopping, etc discard your clothes and wash your hands and feet thoroughly and if possible take a shower with soap.
  15. Most important do not touch hands anywhere on face. Inform children & parents.
  16. Ask Senior Citizens to stop going for the routine walking exercise and group gossiping.
  17. Avoid cash purchase too as far as possible and practice cashless transaction like Phone pay etc.
  18. Use your personal mode of transport bicycle/ motor bike car/ walking as far as possible for your personal work.
  19. Avoid social networking or visiting relatives too which may sound bad but is the need of the hour.
  20. Any symptoms of COVID -19  as suggested by WHO pl. take advise of Doctor.
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Home remedies for cold and cough for babies

cold and cough

Cough and cold are very often found in children which are also known as respiratory infection. Every year a large number of children are admitted in Hospital due to the respiratory problem. It is one of the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in young children. However, in general, cough and cold can be prevented by taking some Home remedies for cold and cough for babies.

Common reasons associated with a cough and cold:

Common remedies associated with a cough and cold are as follows:

Malnutrition: Failing to fulfill nutritional requirements make immunity too weak to fight the infectious responsible for common cold and cough.

Low birth weight: Low birth weight may due to malnutrition at the pre-birth stage.

Not Breastfeeding: Not breastfeeding of the baby leads to malnutrition of the baby. The World Health Organization recommends that all babies be exclusively breastfed for six months, then gradually introduced to appropriate family foods after six months while continuing to breastfeed for two years

Climatic variations especially in winter and rainy seasons: Climat variation, especially in winter and rainy season, may become the reason to have cough and cold. This is because of mainly two reasons, one is a sudden change in body temperature and another is microbes become more active during that period.

Allergy: Cold allergy, dust allergy, pollutant allergy, etc. leads to having sneezing, and other infection.

Overcrowding house: As it is a communicable disease, overcrowding may reason to spread the disease from infected to other.

Bad hygienic practices: Bad hygienic practices can help to increase the load of microbes in the environment which lead to increase the chance to have a frequent cough and cold.

Common sufferings due to cough and cold:

Common sufferings due to cough and cold/respiratory infection are as fever, cough, dyspnea, expectoration, chest indrawing, chest pain, respiratory sound like wheezing, snoring, etc.

Acute respiratory infection (ARI) / Pneumonia:

(ARI) / Pneumonia is the most frequent condition of acute illness in infant and child. In India, ARI is one of the major cause of childhood death. It is one of the major reason for which children are brought to hospitals or health clinics. Near 13% in-patient deaths are due to ARI. In India, more patients die at home than hospital due to ARI / Pneumonia.

Classification of ARI and Pneumonia: As per WHO recommendations, depending on the severity of the infections, ARI and Pneumonia can be classified are as follows:

  1. No Pneumonia: Only cough and cold may be with minor fever indicates no pneumonia. This can be treated at home with home remedies and does not require an antibiotic therapy.
  2. Pneumonia: Fast breathing i.e. increased respiratory rate with the presence of cough and clod is symptoms of Pneumonia (Not severe). In this case, the patient shall be treated in the Outpatient department (OPD).
  3. Severe Pneumonia: Chest indrawing with or without fast breathing indicates severe Pneumonia, Other signs which may present in severe Pneumonia are nasal flaring, Cyanosis, grunting or wheezing, etc. Patient with severe Pneumonia should be hospitalized urgently.
  4. Very severe disease: This condition shows danger sign like an inability to drink, excessive drowsiness, stridor in the calm child, grunting or wheezing, cyanosis, apnea, fever or hypothermia, convulsion, etc. Patient with very severe Pneumonia should be hospitalized top urgently.

Preventive measures of cough and cold / ARI:

Cough and cold or ARI can be prevented as well as minor infection (No pneumonia) can be cured by taking some home remedies which are as follows:

  1. Good hygienic practice related to personal and environmental hygiene: Good hygienic practice related to personal and environmental hygiene like washing hand, eating fresh food, regular sanitization of the environment, making a distance from the already infected people reduce the chances of infection responsible for cough and cold.
  2. Appropriate handling and disposal of the respiratory secretions of the infected individuals: Discharge from the infected individuals may spread the infections to others. Hence infected person should use tissue paper or cleaned cotton cloth for wiping the discharge and dispose of the same in a safe manner so it cannot infect others. Infected one should be isolated from the commonplace until get cured.
  3. Maintenance of warm and well-ventilated environment: Warm and vented environment prevent to increase the load of microbes.
  4. Avoiding synthetic cloth and exposure of skin: Synthetic cloth and exposure of skin may reason to decrease body temperature.
  5. Special protection during weather variation: Special protection shall be taken like wearing of warm cloth, not drinking very cold items (water, coke, etc.) during climatic variation.
  6. Maintenance of nutritional status: Nutritional status shall be maintained for up to 06 months baby with exclusive breastfeeding. thereafter a diet balance shall be maintained with adequate hydration.
  7. Immunization to be completed on time: Vaccination or immunization with pneumococcal vaccine shall be provided as per schedule.
  8. Use of home remedies:tulsi-honey
    1. Tulsi: Tulsi is very effective to prevent a common cough and cold and it even can cure a minor cough and cold. Tulsi contains ursolic acid which effectively works on common cough and cold. But here does is very important. 1.5 leaves / Kg body weight for 1 or 2 times per day.
    2. Honey: Honey is only recommended if the age of the child is more than 2 years. One teaspoon honey can be taken a day.
    3. Apart from these basak, zinger, hot soup, tea, etc. also can be helpful to reduce the impact of the problem.
  9. Avoid harmful practices like self-medication, it may have severe consequences.

Cough and cold are very common in people especially in babies and can be very severe if not handled properly. However, it can be easily prevented if above preventive measures are taken in advance. So follow home remedies for cold and cough for babies and stay healthy.

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Know about some of the common eye-related problems

Eye cataract

In our daily life, everybody faces some common eye-related problems. Several of them are discussed below:

Cataracts :

A cataract is a painless cloudy lens in the eye that causes blurry vision. It progresses slowly as we age (most people who live long enough will have some cataract-like changes to their cornea). Other causes of cataracts include diabetes, trauma, some medications, and excessive UV light exposure.

Cataracts are one of the most common eye conditions we treat. They are classified as a degenerative eye disease as they’re more commonly found in those over 65 years or over. They are so common that over 90% of people with experience cataracts at some point in their lifetime.

Because cataracts are a natural part of the aging process there is no known cause, but they can be closely associated with diabetes and more common in those with family members who have been affected.

Signs and symptoms of cataracts:

  1. Cloudy vision
  2. Poor night vision
  3. Double vision
  4. Glare from bright lights
  5. Cloudy film over the natural lens

Treatment for cataracts:

the best treatment for cataracts is Refractive Lens

Exchange – where the natural lens of the affected eye is replaced with an artificial intraocular lens (IOL). This treatment is a quick and painless procedure, usually completed in less than 30 minutes – using advanced femtosecond laser technology. And depending on the replacement lens you choose, you can look forward to the vision that is even better than your before-cataracts vision.

Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD) :

Age-related macular degeneration is an eye disease with onset at any age, usually, after age 60, that progressively destroys the macula, the central portion of the retina that helps with focus. It rarely causes total blindness as only the center of vision is affected.

There are two types of AMD: wet and dry. In wet AMD, abnormal blood vessels behind the retina start to grow, leaking blood and fluid, causing loss of central

vision, which may occur quickly. In dry AMD, the light-sensitive cells in the

macula slowly break down causing central vision to diminish over time.

AMD is another eye condition that is more likely to affect the over 65 age group. It involves the breakdown of the macula – the middle part of your retina that enables you to see things in detail. Unlike cataracts, which are a natural part of the aging process, AMD can be exacerbated by poor lifestyle choices such as smoking, a poor diet, and obesity.

Signs and symptoms of age-related macular degeneration:

– Blurred vision

– Reduction in vision relating to detailed activities such as reading and recognising faces

– Colour distortion

Treatment for age-related macular degeneration: AMD can, in some cases, be

associated with major vision loss, but there are lots of treatments you can have to prevent the progression of the disease and protect your vision. If you think you may be suffering from AMD it is extremely important to have your eyes assessed by a specialist who will advise you on which of the following treatments will be most beneficial for you:

Centrasight implantable telescope

– surgical implantation of a miniature telescope

Oraya therapy

– using the IRAY Radiotherapy system to target the diseased area of your eye


– a form of lens replacement surgery specifically for AMD

Injection therapy

– this is the most popular form of treatment for AMD, and it can help slow progression of the disease, but it is important to begin treatment at the first sign of disease.

Retinal Detachment:

Retinal detachment occurs when the retina (tissue in the back of the eye) separates (detaches) from its underlying structures. The buildup of fluid behind the retina is what separates the retina from the back of the eye. Retina detachments are often painless, and symptoms that may be noticed include the perception of flashing lights, floaters, or a curtain drawn over your visual field. Risk factors for retinal detachment include being a nearsighted adult age 25 to 50, or an elderly person after cataract surgery. Treatment for a detached retina involves surgery, mostly using lasers, that can improve vision affected by the retinal detachment.

Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye):

Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye)
Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye)

Conjunctivitis, or pinkeye, is redness and inflammation of the clear tissue covering the eye and the inside of the eyelids (conjunctiva). It is commonly caused by bacterial or viral infections but may also be due to irritants (chemicals, pollutants, or allergens). The conjunctiva is a thin layer of cells, or membrane, between the inner surface of the eyelids and the whites of the eyes. Inflammation causes tiny blood vessels, or capillaries, in the conjunctiva to become more prominent. This causes discomfort and a pink or red appearance that can last from a few days to several weeks.


  • Infection in the eye can be due to a virus or bacteria.
  • Viruses that cause conjunctivitis include adenoviruses and some types of herpes virus.
  • Bacterial causes include Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus species, and, less commonly, Chlamydia trachomatis.
  • Bacterial conjunctivitis is sometimes caused by a sexually transmitted infection (STI), such as Chlamydia. If symptoms do not disappear after a month, this may indicate an STI. Most other types of bacterial conjunctivitis will resolve more quickly with treatment.
  • Infective conjunctivitis is extremely contagious and can easily be passed on to another person.

Signs and symptoms may include the following:

  • redness, because of irritation and widening of the tiny blood vessels in the conjunctiva
  • a shiny, watery eye, as the tear glands become overactive
  • a sticky or crusty coating on the eyelashes, especially on waking after a long sleep, because the infection produces mucus
  • soreness and “grittiness,” like sand in the eye
  • swelling, due to inflammation or rubbing
  • The redness and soreness may affect one eye first, then spread to the other.

Other symptoms:

There may also be:

  • Swollen lymph nodes: The lymph node in front of the ear becomes swollen and slightly tender. It may feel like a button under the skin. The lymph node is part of the body’s immune system, which fights infection.
  • Respiratory tract infection: The person may have flu-like symptoms, such as fever, headache, aching limbs, and sore throat.


  • Nearly half of the cases of infective conjunctivitis resolve without medical treatment within 2 weeks and a doctor may suggest watching and waiting.
  • They may prescribe eye drops with decongestants or antihistamine to reduce the symptoms of swelling and irritation.

Antibiotics for infective conjunctivitis

Antibiotics will not help if the cause is viral, and even a bacterial infection may last up to a month with antibiotics. Some studies show that for 1 in 10 patients, antibiotics may help speed up recovery.

Treatment may include eye drops containing antibiotics or an antihistamine.

However, antibiotics may be prescribed if symptoms are severe or have lasted more than 2 weeks. A doctor may give antibiotic eye drops just in case they will help.

The most commonly prescribed antibiotics for infective conjunctivitis are:

  • fluoroquinolones
  • tetracyclines
  • sulfonamides
  • chloramphenicol

These are eye drops or ointment, administered straight onto the eye. Dosage depends on the type. Ointments may be easier to use than eye drops with an infant or young child.

Vision can become blurry shortly after using eye drops. Make sure you can see clearly before driving or operating machinery. If symptoms do not improve or there is pain or blurry vision you should return to your doctor.


A number of home remedies can help ease symptoms and possibly speed up recovery.

  • Contact lenses: Avoid using lenses until at least 24 hours after antibiotic treatment finishes, then throw away and replace the lenses, lens case, and solution
  • Artificial tear eye drops can be bought over the counter (OTC) to help relieve soreness and stickiness.
  • A washcloth soaked in warm water can be used several times a day, to gently clean away any sticky substances. Do this gently, to avoid irritating the eyes. Use a clean washcloth for each eye.
  • Regular handwashing with warm water and soap will help prevent spreading the infection.
  • Warm compresses can soothe discomfort. Soak a clean, lint-free cloth in warm water, wring it out, then apply gently to the closed eye.

Causes in newborns:

Pink eye in newborns can be due to infection, irritation, or a blocked tear duct. The cause can be hard to determine because each type produces similar symptoms. Sometimes bacteria or a virus is passed on from the mother during delivery, even if she does not have symptoms. The bacteria or virus may be related to an STI. If a newborn has bacterial conjunctivitis due to Chlamydia, symptoms normally appear 5 to 12 days after delivery. If the bacteria is due to gonorrhea, they usually appear after 2 to 4 days. The virus that causes oral and genital herpes can also be transmitted at birth and appear as conjunctivitis. In some cases, pink eye occurs as a reaction eyedrops given at birth, to prevent infection. In this case, the symptoms will normally pass after 24 to 36 hours.

Red EYE:

What Is Red Eye?

“Red eye” is a general term used to describe red, irritated and bloodshot eyes. It also may refer to:

  • Red eyes occur when the blood vessels on the surface of the eye expand.
  • Subconjunctival hemorrhage, or broken blood vessel on the sclera
  • Blepharitis, or inflamed eyelids
  • Style, or a red bump on the eyelid
  • Special-effect contact lenses to create a “crazy” red-eye effect

Red eyes in photos:

reddish eye
Red eye

The appearance of red-eye ranges in severity from a bright red that completely covers the sclera to a few enlarged blood vessels that look like wiggly red or pink lines across the “white” of the eye.

Red eyes usually are caused by allergy, eye fatigue, over-wearing contact lenses or common eye infections such as pink eye (conjunctivitis).

However, redness of the eye sometimes can signal a more serious eye condition or diseases, such as uveitis or glaucoma. If your red eye persists or worsens, always contact your eye doctor for proper diagnosis and treatment.

Common Causes Of Red Eye

Conjunctivitis. Also called “pink eye,” conjunctivitis is one of the most common

(and contagious) eye infections, particularly among school children. It occurs when the conjunctiva — the thin, normally transparent membrane that covers the sclera and lines the eyelids — becomes infected.

When the conjunctiva is infected, the blood vessels within it become irritated and swell, giving the eye a red or pink appearance. In fact, a reddish-pink eye is a telltale symptom of conjunctivitis.

There are different types of conjunctivitis — and therefore different ways to treat pink eye — so be sure to always visit your eye doctor for correct diagnosis.

Dry eyes. Dry eye syndrome occurs when your tear glands produce either an

insufficient quantity or quality of tears to properly lubricate and nourish your eyes. A chronic dry eye can cause the surface of the eye to become inflamed and irritated, making your eyes look red.

While dry eye syndrome may not be curable, it can be managed. Treatment for dry eyes includes lubricating “artificial tears” eye drops, prescription eye drops

and punctual plugs. Ask your eye care practitioner for the treatment options best for you.

Allergy. Red eyes often are referred to as “allergy eyes,” given that eye redness is

a common indicator of an allergic reaction.

When your immune system reacts to a foreign substance, such as pollen, pet dander, dust or certain chemicals found in makeup or contact lens solutions, your body releases histamine as part of the inflammatory response that occurs to “fight off” the culprit allergens. As a result, the histamine causes blood vessels in your eyes to enlarge, making your eyes become red and watery.

Avoiding known allergens to which you are sensitive or taking medication advised by your doctor such as antihistamine eye drops can help keep dreaded hay fever and eye allergies at bay, especially during allergy seasons.

Contact lenses. One of the main culprits of red eye is over-wearing or not properly caring for your contact lenses, which can cause a build-up of irritating surface deposits and microbes on your eye.

Red eyes while wearing contacts could be a sign of a serious eye infection, such as keratitis or fungal eye infections. If your eyes become red while wearing contact lenses, remove your contacts immediately and visit your eye doctor.

Contact lenses also can worsen dry eye syndrome, as they typically reduce the amount of oxygen reaching your cornea and can restrict normal tear flow production, particularly with poorly fitting contacts.

You can minimize your risk of contact lens-induced red eye by keeping your lenses clean and disinfected and replacing them according to your eye doctor’s directions. Your doctor also may advise you to try daily disposable lenses or a different type of contact lens material, such as gas permeable (GP) lenses.

Your eyes have to work overtime when working at a computer for extended periods and this can lead to tired, red eyes. Computer vision syndrome. Red, burning and tired eyes go hand-in-hand with staring at a computer screen for too long, which can cause computer vision syndrome. One reason is that you blink less when working at a computer, which dries out the surface of your eye.

Tips to reduce computer eye strain include taking frequent breaks while working at a computer, modifying your workstation and wearing specially designed computer glasses. Lubricating eye drops also can help to keep your eyes moist and healthy and red-free.


Uveitis is inflammation of the middle layers of the eye (the uvea). The uvea is the layer of the eye that contains the arteries and veins that feed the important structures used in vision. Causes of uveitis include trauma or injury to the eye, infections, or rheumatologic or inflammatory diseases that affect other parts of the body. The main symptom of uveitis is a pain in the eyeball. The eye will look red (bloodshot) and you may notice blurred vision, light sensitivity, and spots in your vision.

Treatment for uveitis depends on the cause. Anti-inflammatory or antibiotic drops, along with pain medications may be prescribed.

Eye Allergies:

Severe eye allergies may cause damage to the eye that may threaten eyesight. In some cases, allergies can cause inflammation that may damage the cornea permanently. Causes of eye allergies are usually due to seasonal allergies, sensitivities to cosmetics or medications, or dust. Consult a doctor if OTC remedies do not work, or if you experience pain, discharge, or extreme eye redness.

Sty (Stye):

A sty (also spelled stye) is an infection of the oil gland at the base of an eyelash. It appears as a red, raised pimple on the edge of the eyelid. Symptoms of a sty are the pain, tenderness, redness, and swelling with a small pustule. The eyeball itself may feel irritated or as if something is scratching it due to the swelling of the eyelid. Treatment for a stay includes warm compresses applied to the affected area for 10 minutes, up to six times daily. If the sty comes to a head and releases pus, it should be cleaned gently with soap and water. This rupture usually leads to the sty going away. If the sty is very large, painful, or affects our vision.


The cornea is the clear surface covering the front of the eye. It is normally smooth and round, following the contour of the eyeball. Weakness in the structure of the cornea can lead to pressure in the eyeball, causing a conical-shaped abnormal bulge to the front of the eye in a condition called keratoconus. Changes in the shape of the cornea make it difficult for the eye to focus even with the help of glasses or contact lenses. Keratoconus can also cause complications during certain eye surgeries. Treatment includes rigid contact lenses or corneal transplantation.


Blepharitis is inflammation of the eyelids. The inflammation can be found on the outer (anterior) or inner (posterior) eyelid and symptoms include burning, itching, swelling, flaky skin at the base of the lashes, crusting of the eyelids, tearing, or blurred vision. Common causes of blepharitis are problems with oil glands at the base of the eyelids, infections, or other skin conditions. Treatment includes good eyelid hygiene, including frequent cleaning, light scrubbing, using a mixture of water and baby shampoo. Severe cases of blepharitis may require antibiotics or steroids.

Chalazion (Eyelid Cyst):

A chalazion (also called a meibomian cyst, tarsal cyst, or conjunctival granuloma) is the inflammation of a small cystic gland in the eyelid. The gland opening becomes clogged and the gland swells. Chalazia are treated with warm compresses, though in rare cases they may require antibiotics. If the chalazion becomes severe, causes changes in vision, or is persistent, it may be removed surgically.

Corneal Ulcer:

A corneal ulcer is a small crater (ulcer) on the front part of the eye, usually resulting from infection. Bacteria, viruses, or fungus can cause a corneal ulcer. People who wear contact lenses are at higher risk for corneal ulcers because infectious agents may get trapped behind a lens. Symptoms of a corneal ulcer include pain, intense redness, feeling as if the eye is scratched or something is in the eye, sensitivity to light, and blurry vision. If you suspect a corneal ulcer or have the symptoms of a corneal ulcer and wear contact lenses, see your ophthalmologist immediately. High potency antibiotics and pain medications are the treatments for this condition.

Diabetic Retinopathy:

People with diabetes often have problems with their blood vessels throughout their bodies and the eye is no exception. A complication of diabetes is diabetic retinopathy, which affects the blood vessels in the back of the eye, on the retina. There are two types of diabetic retinopathy:

  • Nonproliferative retinopathy, the less severe type in which there may be bleeding in the retina and leakage of blood or serum causing a “wet retina.”
  • Proliferative retinopathy, a more severe type where new abnormal blood vessels grow on the retina. These vessels may bleed into the vitreous (the clear jelly in the center of the eye) and cause visual problems.

Treatment involves laser surgery but the damage may be permanent. The best way to prevent diabetic retinopathy is through strict glucose control and a healthy lifestyle (weight loss, dietary restrictions, and exercise).

Strabismus (Crossed Eyes):

Crossed eyes (strabismus) is a condition where the eyes do not look in the same direction as they should. One eye may track differently than the other causing a disjointed appearance. Young children born with this disorder may develop decreased vision in one eye (amblyopia). Treatment for strabismus involves using an eye patch on the stronger eye, eye exercises, and possibly surgery. Strabismus is a failure of the two eyes to maintain proper alignment and work together as a team.

If you have strabismus, one eye looks directly at the object you are viewing, while the other eye is misaligned inward (esotropia, “crossed eyes” or “cross-eyed”), outward (exotropia or “wall-eyed”), upward (hypertropia) or downward (hypotropia).

Strabismus can be constant or intermittent. The misalignment also might always affect the same eye (unilateral strabismus), or the two eyes may take turns being misaligned (alternating strabismus).

To prevent double vision from congenital and early childhood strabismus, the brain ignores the visual input from the misaligned eye, which typically leads to amblyopia or “lazy eye” in that eye.

According to the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus, approximately 4 percent of the U.S. population has crossed eyes or some other type of strabismus.

Strabismus Symptoms And Signs

The primary sign of strabismus is a visible misalignment of the eyes, with one eye turning in, out, up, down or at an oblique angle.

eye alignment


Corneal light reflex (Hirschberg) test: A screening test for strabismus that

evaluates eye alignment based on the location of reflections of light shined at the eyes.

When the misalignment of the eyes is large and obvious, the strabismus is called “large-angle,” referring to the angle of deviation between the line of sight of the straight eye and that of the misaligned eye. Less obvious eye turns are called small- angle strabismus.

Typically, constant large-angle strabismus does not cause symptoms such as eye strain and headaches because there is virtually no attempt by the brain to straighten the eyes. Because of this, large-angle strabismus usually causes severe amblyopia in the turned eye if left untreated.

Less noticeable cases of small-angle strabismus are more likely to cause disruptive visual symptoms, especially if the strabismus is intermittent or alternating. In addition to headaches and eye strain, symptoms may include an inability to read comfortably, fatigue when reading and unstable or “jittery” vision. If small-angle strabismus is constant and unilateral, it can lead to significant amblyopia in the misaligned eye.

Both large-angle and small-angle strabismus can be psychologically damaging and affect the self-esteem of children and adults with the condition, as it interferes with normal eye contact with others, often causing embarrassment and awkwardness.

Newborns often have intermittent crossed eyes due to incomplete vision development, but this frequently disappears as the infant grows and the visual system continues to mature. Most types of strabismus, however, do not disappear as a child grows.

Routine children’s eye exams are the best way to detect strabismus. Generally, the earlier strabismus is detected and treated following a child’s eye exam, the more successful the outcome. Without treatment, your child may develop double vision, amblyopia or visual symptoms that could interfere with reading and classroom learning.

What Causes Strabismus?

Each eye has six external muscles (called the extraocular muscles) that control eye position and movement. For normal binocular vision, the position, neurological control and functioning of these muscles for both eyes must be coordinated perfectly.

Strabismus occurs when there are neurological or anatomical problems that interfere with the control and function of the extraocular muscles. The problem may originate in the muscles themselves, or in the nerves or vision centers in the brain that control binocular vision.

Genetics also may play a role: If you or your spouse has strabismus, your children have a greater risk of developing strabismus as well.

Accommodative Esotropia

Occasionally, when a farsighted child tries to focus to compensate for uncorrected farsightedness, he or she will develop a type of strabismus called accommodative esotropia, where the eyes cross due to the excessive focusing effort. This condition usually appears before 2 years of age but also can occur later in childhood. Often, accommodative esotropia can be fully corrected with eyeglasses or contact lenses.

Strabismus Surgery

In most cases, the only effective treatment for a constant eye turn is strabismus surgery. If your general eye doctor finds that your child has strabismus, he or she can refer you to an ophthalmologist who specializes in strabismus surgery. In most cases, the only effective treatment for a constant eye turn is strabismus surgery.

The success of strabismus surgery depends on many factors, including the direction and magnitude of the eye turn. In some cases, more than one surgery may be required. The strabismus surgeon can give you more information about this during a pre-surgical consultation.

Strabismus surgery also can effectively align the eyes of adults with long-standing strabismus. In many cases of adult strabismus, however, a significant degree of amblyopia may remain even after the affected eye is properly aligned. This is why early treatment of strabismus is so important.

The earlier strabismus is treated surgically, the more likely it is that the affected eye will develop normal visual acuity and the two eyes will function together properly as a team.

Non-Surgical Strabismus Treatment:

In some cases of intermittent and small-angle strabismus, it may be possible to improve eye alignment non-surgically with vision therapy.

Esotropia (crossed eyes) needs to be treated early in life to prevent amblyopia.

For example, convergence insufficiency (CI) is a specific type of intermittent exotropia in which the eyes usually align properly when viewing a distant object, but fail to achieve or maintain proper alignment when looking at a close object, such as when reading, resulting in one eye drifting outward. Convergence insufficiency can interfere with comfortable reading, causing eye strain, blurred vision, double vision, and headaches.

There also is some evidence that suggests CI can cause attention problems and affect academic performance in children. A recent study conducted by Mayo Clinic researchers found that children with exotropia (including convergence insufficiency) at an early age were significantly more likely to develop attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), adjustment disorder and learning disabilities by early adulthood.


Floaters are caused by aging changes in the vitreous jelly of the eye. They are a common consequence of aging. If you develop multiple floaters or floaters associated with pain, get checked by your ophthalmologist. In general, floaters do not cause blindness and are mostly harmless. There is no definitive treatment for floaters, as most will fade or become less noticeable over time.

Farsightedness (Hyperopia)

Farsightedness (hyperopia) is difficulty focusing on objects that are close. It is very common and the incidence increases with age. It is caused by an abnormally flat cornea that does not allow light to sharply focus on the retina. Glasses, contact lenses, or surgery may be used to correct hyperopia.

Nearsightedness (Myopia)

Nearsightedness (myopia) causes people to be unable to see distant objects, though they can see nearby objects clearly. It is caused by the cornea having too much curvature, resulting in problems with focusing on the retina. Myopia is extremely common and easily corrected with eyeglasses, contact lenses, or surgery.


Another common cause of visual difficulty is astigmatism, in which images are blurred due to an irregularly-shaped cornea. Astigmatism will eventually affect most people as a part of the aging process. It is treated with glasses, contact lenses, or refractive laser eye surgery.

Color Blindness

Color blindness
Color blindness

The colors we see are a result of how our eyes (and thus our brains) interpret different wavelengths of light. People with color blindness have difficulty seeing certain colors, usually reds, greens, and blues. Color blindness is caused by an absence or malfunction of color-sensitive cells located in the retina. Most of the time this is genetic (people are born with it) but it can also be caused by aging, disease, trauma to the eye, or certain medications. If the cause of the color blindness is genetic, the problem cannot be corrected but people may be trained to adapt to interpret color shades. In cases where color blindness is acquired, it may be treatable.

Dry Eyes:

Symptoms of dry eyes and dry eye syndrome include:

  • Burning sensation
  • Itchy eyes
  • Aching sensations
  • Heavy eyes
  • Fatigued eyes
  • Sore eyes
  • Dryness sensation
  • Red eyes
  • Photophobia (light sensitivity)
  • Blurred vision

Another common symptom is something called a foreign body sensation — the feeling that grit or some other object or material is “in” your eye.

And as odd as it may sound, watery eyes also can be a symptom of dry eye syndrome. This is because dryness on the eye’s surface sometimes will overstimulate production of the watery component of your tears as a protective mechanism. But this “reflex tearing” does not stay on the eye long enough to correct the underlying dry eye condition.

In addition to these symptoms, dry eyes can cause inflammation and (sometimes permanent) damage to the surface of the eye.

Dry eye syndrome also can affect the outcomes of LASIK and cataract surgery.

Dry eye syndrome:

Each component of the tear film serves a critical purpose. For example, tear lipids help keep the tear film from evaporating too quickly and increase lubrication, while mucin helps anchor and spread the tears across the surface of the eye. Each tear component is produced by different glands on or near the eye:

  1. The oily component is produced by meibomian glands in the eyelids.
  2. The watery component is produced by lacrimal glands located behind the outer aspect of the upper eyelids.
  1. The mucin component is produced by goblet cells in the conjunctiva that covers the white of the eye (sclera).

A problem with any of these sources of tear film components can result in tear instability and dry eyes, and there are different categories of dry eyes, depending on which component is affected.

For example, if the meibomian glands don’t produce or secrete enough oil (meibum), the tear film may evaporate too quickly — a condition called “evaporative dry eye.” The underlying condition — called meibomian gland dysfunction — is now recognized as a significant factor in many cases of dry eye syndrome.

In other cases, the primary cause of dry eye is a failure of the lacrimal glands to produce enough watery fluid (aqueous) to keep the eyes adequately moistened. This condition is called “aqueous deficiency dry eye.”

Factors Associated With Dry Eye Syndrome

A number of factors can increase your risk of dry eyes. These include:

  • Computer use. When working at a computer or using a smartphone or other portable digital device, we tend to blink our eyes less fully and less frequently, which leads to greater tear evaporation and increased risk of dry eye symptoms.
  • Contact lens wear. Though it can be difficult to determine the exact extent that contact lens wear contributes to dry eye problems, dry eye discomfort is a primary reason why people discontinue contact lens wear.
  • Aging. Dry eye syndrome can occur at any age, but it becomes increasingly more common later in life, especially after age 50.
  • Menopause. Post-menopausal women are at greater risk of dry eyes than men of the same age.
  • Indoor environment. Air conditioning, ceiling fans, and forced air heating systems all can decrease indoor humidity and/or hasten tear evaporation, causing dry eye symptoms. Outdoor environment. Arid climates and dry or windy conditions increase

dry eye risks:

  • Frequent flying. The air in the cabins of airplanes is extremely dry and can lead to dry eye problems, especially among frequent flyers.
  • Smoking. In addition to dry eyes, smoking has been linked to serious eye problems, including macular degeneration, cataracts, and uveitis. (For details, see our infographic about why smoking is bad for your eyes.)
  • Health conditions. Certain systemic diseases — such as diabetes, thyroid-associated diseases, lupus, rheumatoid arthritis and Sjogren’s syndrome — contribute to dry eye problems.
  • Medications. Many prescription and nonprescription medicines —including antihistamines, antidepressants, certain blood pressure medications and birth control pills — increase the risk of dry eye symptoms.
  • Eyelid problems. Incomplete closure of the eyelids when blinking or

sleeping — a condition called lagophthalmos, which can be caused by aging or occur after cosmetic blepharoplasty other causes — can cause severe dry eyes that can lead to a corneal ulcer if left untreated.

Also, LASIK and other corneal refractive surgery can sometimes cause dry eyes. In most cases, however, dry eye discomfort after LASIK is temporary and resolves within a few weeks of the procedure.

If you have dry eyes prior to LASIK, your eye doctor may recommend a dry eye treatment regimen before your procedure to ensure the best possible LASIK results.

Smartphone Use Linked To Dry Eye In Schoolchildren

There might be another cost associated with children using smartphones besides a large monthly bill from the phone company: It could be causing kids to develop dry eye disease at an early age.

Researchers in Korea evaluated risk factors for dry eye disease among schoolchildren who used video devices, including smartphones. They examined 288 children and classified them as either having dry eyes or having a normal, moist eye surface (control group). Each child completed a questionnaire concerning the types of video devices they commonly used (computer, smartphone, and television) and the amount of time they spent using each device.

Therefore, we have to take care of our eye to avoid complications or loss of vision. We should develop proper human resources to meet the strategy designed by

VISION 2020: THE RIGHT TO SIGHT. This includes pediatric

ophthalmologist, optometrist, health care workers, nursing staff. pediatric anesthetist, rehabilitation workers. In order to reduce the incidence of childhood blindness it is necessary to improve maternal and child health services, particularly immunization, better nutrition and the control of diarrhea. There is also a need to develop specialized pediatric ophthalmic services for the management of surgically correctable conditions, particularly cataract, and to provide low vision services for severely visually impaired children. Low vision can restrict the overall development and education of a child, which is a long run become a social and financial burden to the society and the nation.


Written by: Ranjini Chakraborty

Posted on 1 Comment

Keep waterborne disease away

Purified water
Purified water

June brings along with enjoyable rains, some sort of waterborne disease like Cholera, Diarrhoea, Typhoid fever, Amoebiasis, etc. Water-borne diseases are caused by the pathogen-microorganism that transmitted in water. People can be affected while bathing, washing, drinking water, eating something which is contaminated by infected water.


According to WHO, 3.6 % of the total global disease is the waterborne disease in which 1.5 million deaths worldwide per year. In India from January to September-end last year, 1,412 deaths were attributed to diseases caused by contaminated water.

These diseases can be prevented by developing some good habits and taking some preventive measures as follows:

Purified drinking water
Purified drinking water

  • Drink filtered or boiled water.
  • Clean water/food containers thoroughly on daily basis.
  • Always store water/food in a covered container.
  • Maintain hygienic condition.
  • Consume fresh warm home-cooked foods.
  • Make a habit of washing hand with soap every time after using a washroom and before taking food.
  • Hand sanitizer can be used but it should not contaminate your food.
  • Avoid consuming food/juice from the roadside vendor.
  • Wash fruits and vegetable thoroughly with cleaned water before consuming.
  • Sanitize your toilet/washroom using detergent and strong disinfectant on daily basis.
  • Travelers should only drink bottled water.
  • People suffering from the water-borne disease should not mingle with people until fully recovered to avoid spreading.

Every year during the period from May to September waterborne diseases spread like anything and a lot of patients are admitted to Hospital. So by taking above measures, we can avoid the waterborne disease.






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