In our daily life, everybody faces some common eye-related problems. Several of them are discussed below:
A cataract is a painless cloudy lens in the eye that causes blurry vision. It progresses slowly as we age (most people who live long enough will have some cataract-like changes to their cornea). Other causes of cataracts include diabetes, trauma, some medications, and excessive UV light exposure.
Cataracts are one of the most common eye conditions we treat. They are classified as a degenerative eye disease as they’re more commonly found in those over 65 years or over. They are so common that over 90% of people with experience cataracts at some point in their lifetime.
Because cataracts are a natural part of the aging process there is no known cause, but they can be closely associated with diabetes and more common in those with family members who have been affected.
Signs and symptoms of cataracts:
- Cloudy vision
- Poor night vision
- Double vision
- Glare from bright lights
- Cloudy film over the natural lens
Treatment for cataracts:
the best treatment for cataracts is Refractive Lens
Exchange – where the natural lens of the affected eye is replaced with an artificial intraocular lens (IOL). This treatment is a quick and painless procedure, usually completed in less than 30 minutes – using advanced femtosecond laser technology. And depending on the replacement lens you choose, you can look forward to the vision that is even better than your before-cataracts vision.
Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD) :
Age-related macular degeneration is an eye disease with onset at any age, usually, after age 60, that progressively destroys the macula, the central portion of the retina that helps with focus. It rarely causes total blindness as only the center of vision is affected.
There are two types of AMD: wet and dry. In wet AMD, abnormal blood vessels behind the retina start to grow, leaking blood and fluid, causing loss of central
vision, which may occur quickly. In dry AMD, the light-sensitive cells in the
macula slowly break down causing central vision to diminish over time.
AMD is another eye condition that is more likely to affect the over 65 age group. It involves the breakdown of the macula – the middle part of your retina that enables you to see things in detail. Unlike cataracts, which are a natural part of the aging process, AMD can be exacerbated by poor lifestyle choices such as smoking, a poor diet, and obesity.
Signs and symptoms of age-related macular degeneration:
– Blurred vision
– Reduction in vision relating to detailed activities such as reading and recognising faces
– Colour distortion
Treatment for age-related macular degeneration: AMD can, in some cases, be
associated with major vision loss, but there are lots of treatments you can have to prevent the progression of the disease and protect your vision. If you think you may be suffering from AMD it is extremely important to have your eyes assessed by a specialist who will advise you on which of the following treatments will be most beneficial for you:
Centrasight implantable telescope
– surgical implantation of a miniature telescope
– using the IRAY Radiotherapy system to target the diseased area of your eye
– a form of lens replacement surgery specifically for AMD
– this is the most popular form of treatment for AMD, and it can help slow progression of the disease, but it is important to begin treatment at the first sign of disease.
Retinal detachment occurs when the retina (tissue in the back of the eye) separates (detaches) from its underlying structures. The buildup of fluid behind the retina is what separates the retina from the back of the eye. Retina detachments are often painless, and symptoms that may be noticed include the perception of flashing lights, floaters, or a curtain drawn over your visual field. Risk factors for retinal detachment include being a nearsighted adult age 25 to 50, or an elderly person after cataract surgery. Treatment for a detached retina involves surgery, mostly using lasers, that can improve vision affected by the retinal detachment.
Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye):
Conjunctivitis, or pinkeye, is redness and inflammation of the clear tissue covering the eye and the inside of the eyelids (conjunctiva). It is commonly caused by bacterial or viral infections but may also be due to irritants (chemicals, pollutants, or allergens). The conjunctiva is a thin layer of cells, or membrane, between the inner surface of the eyelids and the whites of the eyes. Inflammation causes tiny blood vessels, or capillaries, in the conjunctiva to become more prominent. This causes discomfort and a pink or red appearance that can last from a few days to several weeks.
- Infection in the eye can be due to a virus or bacteria.
- Viruses that cause conjunctivitis include adenoviruses and some types of herpes virus.
- Bacterial causes include Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus species, and, less commonly, Chlamydia trachomatis.
- Bacterial conjunctivitis is sometimes caused by a sexually transmitted infection (STI), such as Chlamydia. If symptoms do not disappear after a month, this may indicate an STI. Most other types of bacterial conjunctivitis will resolve more quickly with treatment.
- Infective conjunctivitis is extremely contagious and can easily be passed on to another person.
Signs and symptoms may include the following:
- redness, because of irritation and widening of the tiny blood vessels in the conjunctiva
- a shiny, watery eye, as the tear glands become overactive
- a sticky or crusty coating on the eyelashes, especially on waking after a long sleep, because the infection produces mucus
- soreness and “grittiness,” like sand in the eye
- swelling, due to inflammation or rubbing
- The redness and soreness may affect one eye first, then spread to the other.
There may also be:
- Swollen lymph nodes: The lymph node in front of the ear becomes swollen and slightly tender. It may feel like a button under the skin. The lymph node is part of the body’s immune system, which fights infection.
- Respiratory tract infection: The person may have flu-like symptoms, such as fever, headache, aching limbs, and sore throat.
- Nearly half of the cases of infective conjunctivitis resolve without medical treatment within 2 weeks and a doctor may suggest watching and waiting.
- They may prescribe eye drops with decongestants or antihistamine to reduce the symptoms of swelling and irritation.
Antibiotics for infective conjunctivitis
Antibiotics will not help if the cause is viral, and even a bacterial infection may last up to a month with antibiotics. Some studies show that for 1 in 10 patients, antibiotics may help speed up recovery.
Treatment may include eye drops containing antibiotics or an antihistamine.
However, antibiotics may be prescribed if symptoms are severe or have lasted more than 2 weeks. A doctor may give antibiotic eye drops just in case they will help.
The most commonly prescribed antibiotics for infective conjunctivitis are:
These are eye drops or ointment, administered straight onto the eye. Dosage depends on the type. Ointments may be easier to use than eye drops with an infant or young child.
Vision can become blurry shortly after using eye drops. Make sure you can see clearly before driving or operating machinery. If symptoms do not improve or there is pain or blurry vision you should return to your doctor.
A number of home remedies can help ease symptoms and possibly speed up recovery.
- Contact lenses: Avoid using lenses until at least 24 hours after antibiotic treatment finishes, then throw away and replace the lenses, lens case, and solution
- Artificial tear eye drops can be bought over the counter (OTC) to help relieve soreness and stickiness.
- A washcloth soaked in warm water can be used several times a day, to gently clean away any sticky substances. Do this gently, to avoid irritating the eyes. Use a clean washcloth for each eye.
- Regular handwashing with warm water and soap will help prevent spreading the infection.
- Warm compresses can soothe discomfort. Soak a clean, lint-free cloth in warm water, wring it out, then apply gently to the closed eye.
Causes in newborns:
Pink eye in newborns can be due to infection, irritation, or a blocked tear duct. The cause can be hard to determine because each type produces similar symptoms. Sometimes bacteria or a virus is passed on from the mother during delivery, even if she does not have symptoms. The bacteria or virus may be related to an STI. If a newborn has bacterial conjunctivitis due to Chlamydia, symptoms normally appear 5 to 12 days after delivery. If the bacteria is due to gonorrhea, they usually appear after 2 to 4 days. The virus that causes oral and genital herpes can also be transmitted at birth and appear as conjunctivitis. In some cases, pink eye occurs as a reaction eyedrops given at birth, to prevent infection. In this case, the symptoms will normally pass after 24 to 36 hours.
What Is Red Eye?
“Red eye” is a general term used to describe red, irritated and bloodshot eyes. It also may refer to:
- Red eyes occur when the blood vessels on the surface of the eye expand.
- Subconjunctival hemorrhage, or broken blood vessel on the sclera
- Blepharitis, or inflamed eyelids
- Style, or a red bump on the eyelid
- Special-effect contact lenses to create a “crazy” red-eye effect
Red eyes in photos:
The appearance of red-eye ranges in severity from a bright red that completely covers the sclera to a few enlarged blood vessels that look like wiggly red or pink lines across the “white” of the eye.
Red eyes usually are caused by allergy, eye fatigue, over-wearing contact lenses or common eye infections such as pink eye (conjunctivitis).
However, redness of the eye sometimes can signal a more serious eye condition or diseases, such as uveitis or glaucoma. If your red eye persists or worsens, always contact your eye doctor for proper diagnosis and treatment.
Common Causes Of Red Eye
Conjunctivitis. Also called “pink eye,” conjunctivitis is one of the most common
(and contagious) eye infections, particularly among school children. It occurs when the conjunctiva — the thin, normally transparent membrane that covers the sclera and lines the eyelids — becomes infected.
When the conjunctiva is infected, the blood vessels within it become irritated and swell, giving the eye a red or pink appearance. In fact, a reddish-pink eye is a telltale symptom of conjunctivitis.
There are different types of conjunctivitis — and therefore different ways to treat pink eye — so be sure to always visit your eye doctor for correct diagnosis.
Dry eyes. Dry eye syndrome occurs when your tear glands produce either an
insufficient quantity or quality of tears to properly lubricate and nourish your eyes. A chronic dry eye can cause the surface of the eye to become inflamed and irritated, making your eyes look red.
While dry eye syndrome may not be curable, it can be managed. Treatment for dry eyes includes lubricating “artificial tears” eye drops, prescription eye drops
and punctual plugs. Ask your eye care practitioner for the treatment options best for you.
Allergy. Red eyes often are referred to as “allergy eyes,” given that eye redness is
a common indicator of an allergic reaction.
When your immune system reacts to a foreign substance, such as pollen, pet dander, dust or certain chemicals found in makeup or contact lens solutions, your body releases histamine as part of the inflammatory response that occurs to “fight off” the culprit allergens. As a result, the histamine causes blood vessels in your eyes to enlarge, making your eyes become red and watery.
Avoiding known allergens to which you are sensitive or taking medication advised by your doctor such as antihistamine eye drops can help keep dreaded hay fever and eye allergies at bay, especially during allergy seasons.
Contact lenses. One of the main culprits of red eye is over-wearing or not properly caring for your contact lenses, which can cause a build-up of irritating surface deposits and microbes on your eye.
Red eyes while wearing contacts could be a sign of a serious eye infection, such as keratitis or fungal eye infections. If your eyes become red while wearing contact lenses, remove your contacts immediately and visit your eye doctor.
Contact lenses also can worsen dry eye syndrome, as they typically reduce the amount of oxygen reaching your cornea and can restrict normal tear flow production, particularly with poorly fitting contacts.
You can minimize your risk of contact lens-induced red eye by keeping your lenses clean and disinfected and replacing them according to your eye doctor’s directions. Your doctor also may advise you to try daily disposable lenses or a different type of contact lens material, such as gas permeable (GP) lenses.
Your eyes have to work overtime when working at a computer for extended periods and this can lead to tired, red eyes. Computer vision syndrome. Red, burning and tired eyes go hand-in-hand with staring at a computer screen for too long, which can cause computer vision syndrome. One reason is that you blink less when working at a computer, which dries out the surface of your eye.
Tips to reduce computer eye strain include taking frequent breaks while working at a computer, modifying your workstation and wearing specially designed computer glasses. Lubricating eye drops also can help to keep your eyes moist and healthy and red-free.
Uveitis is inflammation of the middle layers of the eye (the uvea). The uvea is the layer of the eye that contains the arteries and veins that feed the important structures used in vision. Causes of uveitis include trauma or injury to the eye, infections, or rheumatologic or inflammatory diseases that affect other parts of the body. The main symptom of uveitis is a pain in the eyeball. The eye will look red (bloodshot) and you may notice blurred vision, light sensitivity, and spots in your vision.
Treatment for uveitis depends on the cause. Anti-inflammatory or antibiotic drops, along with pain medications may be prescribed.
Severe eye allergies may cause damage to the eye that may threaten eyesight. In some cases, allergies can cause inflammation that may damage the cornea permanently. Causes of eye allergies are usually due to seasonal allergies, sensitivities to cosmetics or medications, or dust. Consult a doctor if OTC remedies do not work, or if you experience pain, discharge, or extreme eye redness.
A sty (also spelled stye) is an infection of the oil gland at the base of an eyelash. It appears as a red, raised pimple on the edge of the eyelid. Symptoms of a sty are the pain, tenderness, redness, and swelling with a small pustule. The eyeball itself may feel irritated or as if something is scratching it due to the swelling of the eyelid. Treatment for a stay includes warm compresses applied to the affected area for 10 minutes, up to six times daily. If the sty comes to a head and releases pus, it should be cleaned gently with soap and water. This rupture usually leads to the sty going away. If the sty is very large, painful, or affects our vision.
The cornea is the clear surface covering the front of the eye. It is normally smooth and round, following the contour of the eyeball. Weakness in the structure of the cornea can lead to pressure in the eyeball, causing a conical-shaped abnormal bulge to the front of the eye in a condition called keratoconus. Changes in the shape of the cornea make it difficult for the eye to focus even with the help of glasses or contact lenses. Keratoconus can also cause complications during certain eye surgeries. Treatment includes rigid contact lenses or corneal transplantation.
Blepharitis is inflammation of the eyelids. The inflammation can be found on the outer (anterior) or inner (posterior) eyelid and symptoms include burning, itching, swelling, flaky skin at the base of the lashes, crusting of the eyelids, tearing, or blurred vision. Common causes of blepharitis are problems with oil glands at the base of the eyelids, infections, or other skin conditions. Treatment includes good eyelid hygiene, including frequent cleaning, light scrubbing, using a mixture of water and baby shampoo. Severe cases of blepharitis may require antibiotics or steroids.
Chalazion (Eyelid Cyst):
A chalazion (also called a meibomian cyst, tarsal cyst, or conjunctival granuloma) is the inflammation of a small cystic gland in the eyelid. The gland opening becomes clogged and the gland swells. Chalazia are treated with warm compresses, though in rare cases they may require antibiotics. If the chalazion becomes severe, causes changes in vision, or is persistent, it may be removed surgically.
A corneal ulcer is a small crater (ulcer) on the front part of the eye, usually resulting from infection. Bacteria, viruses, or fungus can cause a corneal ulcer. People who wear contact lenses are at higher risk for corneal ulcers because infectious agents may get trapped behind a lens. Symptoms of a corneal ulcer include pain, intense redness, feeling as if the eye is scratched or something is in the eye, sensitivity to light, and blurry vision. If you suspect a corneal ulcer or have the symptoms of a corneal ulcer and wear contact lenses, see your ophthalmologist immediately. High potency antibiotics and pain medications are the treatments for this condition.
People with diabetes often have problems with their blood vessels throughout their bodies and the eye is no exception. A complication of diabetes is diabetic retinopathy, which affects the blood vessels in the back of the eye, on the retina. There are two types of diabetic retinopathy:
- Nonproliferative retinopathy, the less severe type in which there may be bleeding in the retina and leakage of blood or serum causing a “wet retina.”
- Proliferative retinopathy, a more severe type where new abnormal blood vessels grow on the retina. These vessels may bleed into the vitreous (the clear jelly in the center of the eye) and cause visual problems.
Treatment involves laser surgery but the damage may be permanent. The best way to prevent diabetic retinopathy is through strict glucose control and a healthy lifestyle (weight loss, dietary restrictions, and exercise).
Strabismus (Crossed Eyes):
Crossed eyes (strabismus) is a condition where the eyes do not look in the same direction as they should. One eye may track differently than the other causing a disjointed appearance. Young children born with this disorder may develop decreased vision in one eye (amblyopia). Treatment for strabismus involves using an eye patch on the stronger eye, eye exercises, and possibly surgery. Strabismus is a failure of the two eyes to maintain proper alignment and work together as a team.
If you have strabismus, one eye looks directly at the object you are viewing, while the other eye is misaligned inward (esotropia, “crossed eyes” or “cross-eyed”), outward (exotropia or “wall-eyed”), upward (hypertropia) or downward (hypotropia).
Strabismus can be constant or intermittent. The misalignment also might always affect the same eye (unilateral strabismus), or the two eyes may take turns being misaligned (alternating strabismus).
To prevent double vision from congenital and early childhood strabismus, the brain ignores the visual input from the misaligned eye, which typically leads to amblyopia or “lazy eye” in that eye.
According to the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus, approximately 4 percent of the U.S. population has crossed eyes or some other type of strabismus.
Strabismus Symptoms And Signs
The primary sign of strabismus is a visible misalignment of the eyes, with one eye turning in, out, up, down or at an oblique angle.
Corneal light reflex (Hirschberg) test: A screening test for strabismus that
evaluates eye alignment based on the location of reflections of light shined at the eyes.
When the misalignment of the eyes is large and obvious, the strabismus is called “large-angle,” referring to the angle of deviation between the line of sight of the straight eye and that of the misaligned eye. Less obvious eye turns are called small- angle strabismus.
Typically, constant large-angle strabismus does not cause symptoms such as eye strain and headaches because there is virtually no attempt by the brain to straighten the eyes. Because of this, large-angle strabismus usually causes severe amblyopia in the turned eye if left untreated.
Less noticeable cases of small-angle strabismus are more likely to cause disruptive visual symptoms, especially if the strabismus is intermittent or alternating. In addition to headaches and eye strain, symptoms may include an inability to read comfortably, fatigue when reading and unstable or “jittery” vision. If small-angle strabismus is constant and unilateral, it can lead to significant amblyopia in the misaligned eye.
Both large-angle and small-angle strabismus can be psychologically damaging and affect the self-esteem of children and adults with the condition, as it interferes with normal eye contact with others, often causing embarrassment and awkwardness.
Newborns often have intermittent crossed eyes due to incomplete vision development, but this frequently disappears as the infant grows and the visual system continues to mature. Most types of strabismus, however, do not disappear as a child grows.
Routine children’s eye exams are the best way to detect strabismus. Generally, the earlier strabismus is detected and treated following a child’s eye exam, the more successful the outcome. Without treatment, your child may develop double vision, amblyopia or visual symptoms that could interfere with reading and classroom learning.
What Causes Strabismus?
Each eye has six external muscles (called the extraocular muscles) that control eye position and movement. For normal binocular vision, the position, neurological control and functioning of these muscles for both eyes must be coordinated perfectly.
Strabismus occurs when there are neurological or anatomical problems that interfere with the control and function of the extraocular muscles. The problem may originate in the muscles themselves, or in the nerves or vision centers in the brain that control binocular vision.
Genetics also may play a role: If you or your spouse has strabismus, your children have a greater risk of developing strabismus as well.
Occasionally, when a farsighted child tries to focus to compensate for uncorrected farsightedness, he or she will develop a type of strabismus called accommodative esotropia, where the eyes cross due to the excessive focusing effort. This condition usually appears before 2 years of age but also can occur later in childhood. Often, accommodative esotropia can be fully corrected with eyeglasses or contact lenses.
In most cases, the only effective treatment for a constant eye turn is strabismus surgery. If your general eye doctor finds that your child has strabismus, he or she can refer you to an ophthalmologist who specializes in strabismus surgery. In most cases, the only effective treatment for a constant eye turn is strabismus surgery.
The success of strabismus surgery depends on many factors, including the direction and magnitude of the eye turn. In some cases, more than one surgery may be required. The strabismus surgeon can give you more information about this during a pre-surgical consultation.
Strabismus surgery also can effectively align the eyes of adults with long-standing strabismus. In many cases of adult strabismus, however, a significant degree of amblyopia may remain even after the affected eye is properly aligned. This is why early treatment of strabismus is so important.
The earlier strabismus is treated surgically, the more likely it is that the affected eye will develop normal visual acuity and the two eyes will function together properly as a team.
Non-Surgical Strabismus Treatment:
In some cases of intermittent and small-angle strabismus, it may be possible to improve eye alignment non-surgically with vision therapy.
Esotropia (crossed eyes) needs to be treated early in life to prevent amblyopia.
For example, convergence insufficiency (CI) is a specific type of intermittent exotropia in which the eyes usually align properly when viewing a distant object, but fail to achieve or maintain proper alignment when looking at a close object, such as when reading, resulting in one eye drifting outward. Convergence insufficiency can interfere with comfortable reading, causing eye strain, blurred vision, double vision, and headaches.
There also is some evidence that suggests CI can cause attention problems and affect academic performance in children. A recent study conducted by Mayo Clinic researchers found that children with exotropia (including convergence insufficiency) at an early age were significantly more likely to develop attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), adjustment disorder and learning disabilities by early adulthood.
Floaters are caused by aging changes in the vitreous jelly of the eye. They are a common consequence of aging. If you develop multiple floaters or floaters associated with pain, get checked by your ophthalmologist. In general, floaters do not cause blindness and are mostly harmless. There is no definitive treatment for floaters, as most will fade or become less noticeable over time.
Farsightedness (hyperopia) is difficulty focusing on objects that are close. It is very common and the incidence increases with age. It is caused by an abnormally flat cornea that does not allow light to sharply focus on the retina. Glasses, contact lenses, or surgery may be used to correct hyperopia.
Nearsightedness (myopia) causes people to be unable to see distant objects, though they can see nearby objects clearly. It is caused by the cornea having too much curvature, resulting in problems with focusing on the retina. Myopia is extremely common and easily corrected with eyeglasses, contact lenses, or surgery.
Another common cause of visual difficulty is astigmatism, in which images are blurred due to an irregularly-shaped cornea. Astigmatism will eventually affect most people as a part of the aging process. It is treated with glasses, contact lenses, or refractive laser eye surgery.
The colors we see are a result of how our eyes (and thus our brains) interpret different wavelengths of light. People with color blindness have difficulty seeing certain colors, usually reds, greens, and blues. Color blindness is caused by an absence or malfunction of color-sensitive cells located in the retina. Most of the time this is genetic (people are born with it) but it can also be caused by aging, disease, trauma to the eye, or certain medications. If the cause of the color blindness is genetic, the problem cannot be corrected but people may be trained to adapt to interpret color shades. In cases where color blindness is acquired, it may be treatable.
Symptoms of dry eyes and dry eye syndrome include:
- Burning sensation
- Itchy eyes
- Aching sensations
- Heavy eyes
- Fatigued eyes
- Sore eyes
- Dryness sensation
- Red eyes
- Photophobia (light sensitivity)
- Blurred vision
Another common symptom is something called a foreign body sensation — the feeling that grit or some other object or material is “in” your eye.
And as odd as it may sound, watery eyes also can be a symptom of dry eye syndrome. This is because dryness on the eye’s surface sometimes will overstimulate production of the watery component of your tears as a protective mechanism. But this “reflex tearing” does not stay on the eye long enough to correct the underlying dry eye condition.
In addition to these symptoms, dry eyes can cause inflammation and (sometimes permanent) damage to the surface of the eye.
Dry eye syndrome also can affect the outcomes of LASIK and cataract surgery.
Dry eye syndrome:
Each component of the tear film serves a critical purpose. For example, tear lipids help keep the tear film from evaporating too quickly and increase lubrication, while mucin helps anchor and spread the tears across the surface of the eye. Each tear component is produced by different glands on or near the eye:
- The oily component is produced by meibomian glands in the eyelids.
- The watery component is produced by lacrimal glands located behind the outer aspect of the upper eyelids.
- The mucin component is produced by goblet cells in the conjunctiva that covers the white of the eye (sclera).
A problem with any of these sources of tear film components can result in tear instability and dry eyes, and there are different categories of dry eyes, depending on which component is affected.
For example, if the meibomian glands don’t produce or secrete enough oil (meibum), the tear film may evaporate too quickly — a condition called “evaporative dry eye.” The underlying condition — called meibomian gland dysfunction — is now recognized as a significant factor in many cases of dry eye syndrome.
In other cases, the primary cause of dry eye is a failure of the lacrimal glands to produce enough watery fluid (aqueous) to keep the eyes adequately moistened. This condition is called “aqueous deficiency dry eye.”
Factors Associated With Dry Eye Syndrome
A number of factors can increase your risk of dry eyes. These include:
- Computer use. When working at a computer or using a smartphone or other portable digital device, we tend to blink our eyes less fully and less frequently, which leads to greater tear evaporation and increased risk of dry eye symptoms.
- Contact lens wear. Though it can be difficult to determine the exact extent that contact lens wear contributes to dry eye problems, dry eye discomfort is a primary reason why people discontinue contact lens wear.
- Aging. Dry eye syndrome can occur at any age, but it becomes increasingly more common later in life, especially after age 50.
- Menopause. Post-menopausal women are at greater risk of dry eyes than men of the same age.
- Indoor environment. Air conditioning, ceiling fans, and forced air heating systems all can decrease indoor humidity and/or hasten tear evaporation, causing dry eye symptoms. Outdoor environment. Arid climates and dry or windy conditions increase
dry eye risks:
- Frequent flying. The air in the cabins of airplanes is extremely dry and can lead to dry eye problems, especially among frequent flyers.
- Smoking. In addition to dry eyes, smoking has been linked to serious eye problems, including macular degeneration, cataracts, and uveitis. (For details, see our infographic about why smoking is bad for your eyes.)
- Health conditions. Certain systemic diseases — such as diabetes, thyroid-associated diseases, lupus, rheumatoid arthritis and Sjogren’s syndrome — contribute to dry eye problems.
- Medications. Many prescription and nonprescription medicines —including antihistamines, antidepressants, certain blood pressure medications and birth control pills — increase the risk of dry eye symptoms.
- Eyelid problems. Incomplete closure of the eyelids when blinking or
sleeping — a condition called lagophthalmos, which can be caused by aging or occur after cosmetic blepharoplasty other causes — can cause severe dry eyes that can lead to a corneal ulcer if left untreated.
Also, LASIK and other corneal refractive surgery can sometimes cause dry eyes. In most cases, however, dry eye discomfort after LASIK is temporary and resolves within a few weeks of the procedure.
If you have dry eyes prior to LASIK, your eye doctor may recommend a dry eye treatment regimen before your procedure to ensure the best possible LASIK results.
Smartphone Use Linked To Dry Eye In Schoolchildren
There might be another cost associated with children using smartphones besides a large monthly bill from the phone company: It could be causing kids to develop dry eye disease at an early age.
Researchers in Korea evaluated risk factors for dry eye disease among schoolchildren who used video devices, including smartphones. They examined 288 children and classified them as either having dry eyes or having a normal, moist eye surface (control group). Each child completed a questionnaire concerning the types of video devices they commonly used (computer, smartphone, and television) and the amount of time they spent using each device.
Therefore, we have to take care of our eye to avoid complications or loss of vision. We should develop proper human resources to meet the strategy designed by
VISION 2020: THE RIGHT TO SIGHT. This includes pediatric
ophthalmologist, optometrist, health care workers, nursing staff. pediatric anesthetist, rehabilitation workers. In order to reduce the incidence of childhood blindness it is necessary to improve maternal and child health services, particularly immunization, better nutrition and the control of diarrhea. There is also a need to develop specialized pediatric ophthalmic services for the management of surgically correctable conditions, particularly cataract, and to provide low vision services for severely visually impaired children. Low vision can restrict the overall development and education of a child, which is a long run become a social and financial burden to the society and the nation.
Written by: Ranjini Chakraborty